Title: Delivery Process and Liability for Misdelivery in Electronic Bills of Lading
傳統使用之紙本載貨證券近年來備受批評，主要有三方面：寄送費時、易遭偽造、高處理成本。電子載貨證券乃是載貨證券資料經由電子通訊傳送。由於其處理成本低廉，傳遞速度快，各界咸盼其使用以避免紙本載貨證券的缺失。國際海事委員會(Comité Maritime International, CMI)於1990年制定電子載貨證券規則，其主要架構在電子資料交換(Electronic Data Interchange, EDI)技術。電子載貨證券之採用，固然可減少紙本載貨證券之缺失，但仍難保證不會有貨物錯誤交付之情形。電子載貨證券之順利運作，仍有賴建立一完善規劃之貨物交付程序(delivery process)，規範運送人及持有人之權益。本文從紙本載貨證券之相關規定及案例出發，探討電子載貨證券之相關規定、交付程序設計及運送人錯誤交付之責任等問題。
Bills of lading in paper form have been criticized these years for the following reasons: It is time-consuming, costly, and open to fraud. Electronic bills of lading are mainly data contained in bills of lading transmitted electronically. Since the cost is down and the speed is up, almost all parties involved welcome electronic bills of lading to avoid the disadvantages of paper bills of lading. In 1990 Comité Maritime International (CMI) proposes rules for electronic bills of lading, of which the underlying technology is mainly based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). Although using electronic bills of lading does reduce risks in using paper bills of lading, it does not guarantee that misdelivery of goods will never happen. Successful operation of electronic bills of lading still depends on a well-defined delivery process, which clearly specifies the carrier and the holder’s liabilities. In this paper, starting from related regulations and legal cases in paper bills of lading, we address the regulations, the design of delivery process, and the carrier’s liability for misdelivery in electronic bills of lading.
Key Words: Electronic Data Interchange, rules for electronic bills of lading, misdelivery, maritime.